Housing Affordability Institute’s State Legislatures and Housing Reform project monitors how state lawmakers are working to address their states’ housing challenges in 2024.

PROJECT

State Legislatures and Housing Reform in 2024

Today’s housing affordability and access crises are from years of separate, but interconnected issues. As a nation and in major markets, housing has largely been underbuilt since the Great Recession. Contributing to the supply problem is that affordability for new housing has eroded over the past 15 years.

As zoning modernization in California, Oregon, Montana, and Massachusetts, and ending aesthetic mandates in North Carolina have shown in recent years, there are various options available for lawmakers seeking to address housing challenges in their home states.  

State Legislatures and Housing Reform in 2024

Click on any highlighted state for state-specific details. Content updated May 28, 2024.

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More State Legislatures and Housing Reform in 2024 Content:


Arizona

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 8 – June 30, 2024
Status: Adjourned

Zoning reform was a contentious issue in Arizona’s last session as the state became one of several Mountain-West states to examine how to address the state’s housing costs. Housing advocates in Arizona have a large agenda in 2024.

After mid-session vetoes by Gov. Hobbs, reform advocates were able to get two major bills signed into law as the legislative session drew to a close:

HB 2720 legalized Accessory Dwelling Units (ADUs). The shares the same bill number as the vetoed Arizona Starter Home Act which would have:

  • Prohibited municipalities from mandating the inclusion of luxury amenities as a condition of project approval. Mandating these amenities also necessitates the creation of a Home Owners Association;
  • Prevented municipalities from imposing square footage minimums or home dimension requirements, any minimum lot size
  • Banned architectural requirements and aesthetic mandates; and
  • Established setback guardrails.

HB 2721 allows for a wider range of housing options, including Missing Middle housing.

Another bill, HB2584, would have prevented municipalities from prohibiting the use of materials approved by the model building code and bans municipal prohibitions on prefabricated units and components. This bill passed the State House but failed to pass in the State Senate.


California

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 3 – Aug. 31, 202
Status: In Session

Unlike most states, California’s legislative session stretches through August. Through May, here are several of the key bills progressing in 2024:

AB 1820: This bill requires local governments to provide a precise estimate of the fees required for a proposed development at the time of building permit application. AB 1820 passed the State Assembly with no opposition and awaits action in the State Senate.

AB 2144: This bill requires greater transparency with local government impact fees has cleared two State Assembly committees and awaits action in a third committee.  

SB 450: A technical fix to 2021’s SB 9, this bill adds a 60-day review period max to all SB 9-related projects, provides guard rails to ensure lots can be split, and prohibits local governments from applying different standards of review for SB 9-related projects that do not already apply to single-family housing. The bill has cleared the State Senate and awaits a floor vote in the State Assembly.

SB 937: Delays payment of impact fees until the certificate of occupancy is issued. The bill passes the State Senate without opposition and is awaiting action in the State Assembly.

SB 1211: Builds on past ADU reforms in California by allowing up to eight detached ADUs on multifamily properties and prohibits local governments from requiring the replacement of surface parking spaces when an ADU is built. This bill has passed the State Senate and awaits action in the State Assembly.

SB 1470: This Condo Defect Reform bill is awaiting action in the State Senate.


Colorado

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 10 – May 8, 2024
Status: Adjourned

Last year, Gov. Jared Polis was one of several governors to lead from the front on housing reform. Gov. Polis made housing reform part of his State of the State speech this year. After setbacks last session, the payoff came this year after the Colorado Legislature passed several bills:

  • HB24-1152: Legalizes ADUs in major cities provided they meet the established criteria.
  • HB24-1304: Initially a bill to eliminate parking mandates near transit in major cities, the passed version of the bill eliminated parking mandates along major transit routes. The bill also includes a maximum of one parking space per unit if there is a demonstrated negative impact on the area without parking.
  • HB24-1313: Larger cities must establish a density target for zones adjacent to major transit lines, necessitating zoning regulations to accommodate an average of 40 housing units per acre. These cities are required to devise strategies to meet this target and furnish regular progress reports to the state.

One item left on the table was HB24-1239, a bill to expand the availability of single-stair multi-family dwellings by requiring local building codes to allow up to five stories of a multifamily residential building to be served by a single exit.


Georgia

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 8 – March 28, 2024
Status: Adjourned

Despite calls for action on housing reform from Gov. Kemp, senior legislative leaders and the business community, reforms in Georiga fell short again in 2024. The reform discussion in Georiga traces back to November 2022, when the Georgia House Study Committee on Regulation, Affordability and Access to Housing released its final report outlining significant housing policy reforms for the state to examine in 2023.

Two reform bills from 2023 rolled over to the 2024 legislative calendar:

  • HB 514: “Housing Regulation Transparency Act was a zoning modernization bill passed by the House in 2023. The Senate voted not to adopt the conference committee report on HB 514 in March 2024.
  • HB 517: Georgia Homeowner Opportunity Act, would have banned aesthetic mandates and other design review elements for one- and two-family dwellings. The bill failed to get to the floor of either chamber.

Kentucky

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 2 – April 15, 2024
Status: Adjourned

New to this project in 2024, Kentucky’s legislature is considering joining the growing number of states modernizing zoning policies with House Bill 102. While introduced, the bill failed to get a hearing in 2024. As proposed, HB 102 would have required cities to prioritize housing in the following ways:

  • Establishes that the state building code establishes the minimum square footage requirements for dwellings.
  • Prohibitions on aesthetic mandates and design requirements;
  • Establishing duplexes, triplexes and quad-plexes as a by-right condition wherever single-family zoning exists;
  • Guardrails on setbacks;
  • Statewide framework for accessory dwelling units;
  • Facilitates renovations for single-family to missing middle conversions;
  • Local procedural changes to streamline approvals;
  • No parking mandates within 1/2 mile of transit.

Minnesota

Regular Session Dates: Feb. 12 – May 20, 2024
Status: Adjourned

After six years of discussions on housing reform, Minnesota lawmakers unveiled a large housing policy reform package backed by an even larger coalition.

The “People Over Parking Act” (SF 3573) was a bill that would have allowed the property owner to determine the number of parking spots by eliminating parking mandates statewide for all types of development. The bill was not heard in the House and had its only Senate hearing late in the session when the bill was amended to include prohibitions on mandating Home Owner’s Associations within new developments. The provision was not included in any larger bill.

HF 4009 / SF 3964 was a comprehensive reform bill to:

  • Establish separate density requirements for large and small communities.
  • Density bonuses for projects targeting specific income levels or for all-electric homes.
  • Small lots by right, with different sizes based on community classification and home types.
  • Administrative approvals on projects complying with the law.
  • Statewide framework for ADUs.
  • Guardrails on zoning to ensure municipal controls do not block missing middle housing.
  • Prohibit the use of aesthetic mandates.
  • Multifamily dwellings in commercial areas.

The bill sailed through both chambers’ Housing Committees but found opposition in the State and Local Government Committees. The multifamily in commercial zones provision was placed on a separate track and failed to clear either chamber’s State and Local Government Committee. Aesthetic mandate reform language was included in the final Senate Housing Policy Omnibus bill but was not adopted by the Transportation, Labor and Housing Policy Omnibus conference committee.

While major reforms fell short, two other provisions did get passed:

  • A bill to address environmental NIMBYism to exempt zoning changes and comprehensive plans from environmental reviews passed.
  • A bill that would have required the state’s Department of Labor and Industry to amend the state’s building code to allow for single-stair multifamily dwellings, was amended to create a study committee on the topic.

New York

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 3 – June 6, 2024
Status: In Session

Like Colorado, Gov. Kathy Hochul’s housing reform proposal failed to garner enough votes to pass in 2023 and relied on executive orders to address several barriers to housing production. Gov. Hochul has indicated that more comprehensive reforms may be on pause in 2024.


Oregon

Regular Session Dates: Feb. 5 – March 10, 2024
Status: Adjourned

Housing advocates in Oregon had a very successful 2023 legislative session and will seek to build upon that success in 2024’s short legislative session.

Gov. Tina Kotek has unveiled a 69-page bill that pairs investment with policy reforms. After failing to get worked into last year’s reforms, a provision making it easier for cities to annex land to make room for new housing growth is a central part of Gov. Kotek’s plan. Under the proposal. cities with more than 25,000 could annex up to 150 acres without state approval to make room for new housing. Cities with fewer than 25,000 residents would be able to annex up to 75 acres.


Utah

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 16 – March 1, 2024
Status: Adjourned

Utah was expected to be the next Mountain-West state to enter the housing discussion. Instead, a bill to enable new starter home construction, HB 306, appears destined to die in committee. Housing advocates hope to come back in 2025 with a similar agenda.


Vermont

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 3, 2024 – May 9, 2024
Status: Adjourned

After modernizing zoning and land use laws in 2023, Vermont continues to work through housing-related legislation in 2024.

Gov. Phil Scott said he will not sign any bill making it “harder, slower and more expensive to build the housing we desperately need, while empowering NIMBYism,” taking a firm do-no-harm-to-housing stance. The statement was made in response to proposed legislation reforming Vermont’s Act 250, a law that governs land use approvals.

Another bill, H.647, would create a board of appeals to hear zoning and land use appeals by project applicants challenging a municipal decision. This bill has not yet had a committee hearing.


Virginia

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 10- March 9, 2024
Status: Adjourned

Housing policy reform has been on Gov. Glenn Youngkin’s agenda since his election in 2021, yet housing reform has progressed slowly in the Virginia General Assembly.

2024 saw the enactment of one of the commonwealth’s first reforms:  SB109, a bill directing the commonwealth’s Board of Housing and Community Development to examine inserting point access block or single-stair dwellings into the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code.


Washington

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 8- March 7, 2024
Status: Adjourned

Washington, like Oregon and California, had a successful legislative session in 2023. With two months of work in 2023, it remains to be seen what will happen in 2024.