Housing Affordability Institute’s State Legislatures and Housing Reform project monitors how state lawmakers are working to address their states’ housing challenges in 2024.

PROJECT

State Legislatures and Housing Reform in 2024

Today’s housing affordability and access crises are from years of separate, but interconnected issues. As a nation and in major markets, housing has largely been underbuilt since the Great Recession. Contributing to the supply problem is that affordability for new housing has eroded over the past 15 years.

As zoning modernization in California, Oregon, Montana, and Massachusetts, and ending aesthetic mandates in North Carolina have shown in recent years, there are various options available for lawmakers seeking to address housing challenges in their home states.  

State Legislatures and Housing Reform in 2024

Click on any highlighted state for state-specific details. Content updated Feb. 13, 2024.

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More State Legislatures and Housing Reform in 2024 Content:


Arizona

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 8 – April 20, 2024
Status: In Session

Zoning reform was a contentious issue in Arizona’s last session as the state became one of several Mountain-West states to examine how to address the state’s housing costs. Housing advocates in Arizona have a large agenda in 2024.

HB2570, the “Arizona Starter Home Act,” which has cleared to House committees, seeks to increase affordability by:

  • Prohibiting municipalities from mandating the inclusion of luxury amenities as a condition of project approval. Mandating these amenities also necessitates the creation of a Home Owners Association;
  • Preventing municipalities from imposing square footage minimums or home dimension requirements, any minimum lot size
  • Banning architectural requirements and aesthetic mandates; and
  • Establishing setback guardrails.

Another bill, HB2584, would prevent municipalities from prohibiting the use of materials approved by the model building code and bans municipal prohibitions on prefabricated units and components. Arizona does not have a uniform state building code and relies on municipal code adoption. This has cleared two House committees

Other concepts being floated include bills aimed at legalizing missing middle housing, a statewide ADU framework and a “shot clock” bill to streamline project approval.


California

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 3 – Aug. 31, 202
Status: In Session

For the past several years California has shown other states what is possible on housing policy reform. More legislation is expected this year, including condo defect law reform.


Colorado

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 10 – May 8, 2024
Status: In Session

Last year, Gov. Jared Polis was one of several governors to lead from the front on housing reform. Gov. Polis made housing reform part of his State of the State speech this year. Policy and finance reforms are on the agenda in 2024.


Georgia

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 8 – March 28, 2024
Status: In Session

In November 2022, the Georgia House Study Committee on Regulation, Affordability and Access to Housing released its final report outlining significant housing policy reforms for the state to examine in 2023. Despite support from Gov. Kemp, no major housing legislation advanced in the 2023 session.


Kentucky

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 2 – April 15, 2024
Status: In Session

New to this project in 2024, Kentucky’s legislature is considering joining the growing number of states modernizing zoning policies with House Bill 102. As proposed, HB 102 would require cities to prioritize housing in the following ways:

  • Establishes that the state building code establishes the minimum square footage requirements for dwellings.
  • Prohibitions on aesthetic mandates and design requirements;
  • Establishing duplexes, triplexes and quad-plexes as a by-right condition wherever single-family zoning exists;
  • Guardrails on setbacks;
  • Statewide framework for accessory dwelling units;
  • Facilitates renovations for single-family to missing middle conversions;
  • Local procedural changes to streamline approvals;
  • No parking mandates within 1/2 mile of transit.

Cities would have one year from enactment to adopt zoning controls that comply with this law.


Minnesota

Regular Session Dates: Feb. 12 – May 20, 2024
Status: In Session

Zoning reform has been a part of Minnesota’s legislative discussion since 2019. After several sessions of varying progress, legislative housing leaders have indicated several policy reforms are in the works for 2024.

Prior to the start of the legislative session, State Sen. Omar Fateh, joined by Congresswoman Ilhan Omar, introduced the “People over Parking Act” (bill number TBD) would allow the property owner to determine the number of parking spots by eliminating parking mandates statewide for all types of development. With the start of the session on Feb. 12, the House companion was introduced as HF 3468.

Legislation to modify the Minnesota State Building Code to accommodate single-stair multi-family dwellings was introduced in both chambers. Bill authors on these bills, HF 3351 and SF 3538, include their respective chamber’s housing committee chair.


New York

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 3 – June 6, 2024
Status: In Session

Like Colorado, Gov. Kathy Hochul’s housing reform proposal failed to garner enough votes to pass in 2023 and relied on executive orders to address several barriers to housing production. Gov. Hochul has indicated that more comprehensive reforms may be on pause in 2024.


Oregon

Regular Session Dates: Feb. 5 – March 10, 2024
Status: In Session

Housing advocates in Oregon had a very successful 2023 legislative session and will seek to build upon that success in 2024’s short legislative session.

Gov. Tina Kotek has unveiled a 69-page bill that pairs investment with policy reforms. After failing to get worked into last year’s reforms, a provision making it easier for cities to annex land to make room for new housing growth is a central part of Gov. Kotek’s plan. Under the proposal. cities with more than 25,000 could annex up to 150 acres without state approval to make room for new housing. Cities with fewer than 25,000 residents would be able to annex up to 75 acres.


Utah

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 16 – March 1, 2024
Status: In Session

Utah was expected to be the next Mountain-West state to enter the housing discussion. Instead, a bill to enable new starter home construction, HB 306, appears destined to die in committee.


Vermont

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 3, 2024 – May 9, 2024
Status: In Session

After modernizing zoning and land use laws in 2023, Vermont continues to work through housing-related legislation in 2024.

Gov. Phil Scott said he will not sign any bill making it “harder, slower and more expensive to build the housing we desperately need, while empowering NIMBYism,” taking a firm do-no-harm-to-housing stance. The statement was made in response to proposed legislation reforming Vermont’s Act 250, a law that governs land use approvals.

Another bill, H.647, would create a board of appeals to hear zoning and land use appeals by project applicants challenging a municipal decision. This bill has not yet had a committee hearing.


Virginia

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 10- March 9, 2024
Status: In Session

Housing policy reform has been on Gov. Glenn Youngkin’s agenda since his election in 2021, yet housing reform has progressed slowly in the Virginia General Assembly.

2024 is off to a good start with SB109, a bill directing the commonwealth’s Board of Housing and Community Development to examine inserting point access block or single-stair dwellings into the Virginia Uniform Statewide Building Code. The bill has passed the Senate and is working through the State Assembly.


Washington

Regular Session Dates: Jan. 8- March 7, 2024
Status: In Session

Washington, like Oregon and California, had a successful legislative session in 2023. With two months of work in 2023, it remains to be seen what will happen in 2024.